Prior to English porcelain, English china manufacturer’s and potters were using hard-paste and soft-paste porcelains. J.Spode II (1754-1827) was the first to use ox bone to create a hybrid form on hard-paste porcelain china, called bone china. Bone china is a form of hard paste porcelain because it is a mixture of 25% china clay, 25% Cornish stone, 50% bone ash in its standard formula. Bone china became the English porcelain for several reasons. It was less liable to loss in firing than soft paste porcelains which contain glass. The firing temperature was much lower (1250º C) than for hard paste porcelain (1400º C). Thus, potters could use their existing methods and ovens. Also, the brilliance of enamel colours and gold was greater than on other porcelains.